Statement of Daniel S. Goldin


National Aeronautics and Space Administration

before the Committee on Science House of Representatives

Mr. Chairman and Members of the Committee:

I am pleased to be here today to present to you NASA’s
budget request for FY 2002.

As I look back at the year that has just concluded, I
am filled with pride at what the NASA team has accomplished and with excitement
for the many challenges that still lay ahead. What a year we have had!
NASA flew the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, the data from which is
now being used to produce the most accurate digital elevation model ever
of the Earth’s land surface. The Hubble Space Telescope continued to provide
the world with breathtaking images as it unlocks the secrets of the universe
and rewrite astronomy textbooks. The Mars Global Surveyor brought us detailed
pictures of the surface of Mars, providing more clues and compelling evidence
that suggests water once flowed freely on the planet’s surface. Back on
Earth, NASA researchers brought a pulse of light to a complete stop, held
it in place, and then were able to activate the light pulse again; this
achievement has significant ramifications for new technologies in computing
and communications. Space Station assembly and outfitting continued on
schedule with 4 Shuttle flights, including the delivery of the Expedition
One crew, which established continuous human presence in space, and the
deployment of the U.S. laboratory. The NASA team also coordinated the successful
launch of 6 ELV missions, including the Geostationary Operational Environmental
Satellite-L, the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-H, the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora
Global Exploration mission, the NOAA-L weather satellite, the Earth Observing-1
satellite, and the Satellite de Applicaciones Cientificas-C mission.

The Administration’s FY 2002 request for NASA is a solid
and businesslike budget plan. The proposed funding level of $14.5 billion
reflects an increase of 2-percent, or $258 million over the FY 2001 enacted
level, and a 7 percent increase over FY 2000. The budget plan represents
a deliberate prioritization of efforts within each Enterprise, to ensure
that we live within our means. It provides a disciplined budget plan for
International Space Station development and operations, consistent with
a strategy of constraining Space Station cost growth, by offsetting growth
through budget reductions in Station hardware and other Human Space Flight
programs. NASA will undertake significant management reforms and budget
restructuring to bring Space Station costs under control. The President’s
FY 2002 budget provides ongoing support to fly the Space Shuttle safely
while calling for a prioritization of Shuttle safety upgrades and infrastructure
improvements within the proposed budget runout. The President’s budget
also calls for advancing the privatization of Space Shuttle activities.
It reflects a strong commitment to continued execution of the Space Launch
Initiative, reflecting NASA’s commitment to provide commercial industry
the opportunity to meet NASA’s future launch needs and to dramatically
reduce space transportation costs while improving space transportation
safety and reliability. It funds a more robust Mars Exploration Program
by redirecting funding from lower priority Space Science efforts. It provides
increased funding for science-driven, prioritized, follow-on missions for
second-generation Earth Observing System measurements that will provide
greater understanding of how the Earth and its climate are changing; this
increase is accomplished by identifying offsets within lower priority elements
of the Earth Science program.

The President’s budget also recognizes that the difficult
decisions lie ahead. NASA is developing an integrated, long-term Agency
plan that ensures a national capability to support NASA’s mission. We will
accomplish this by: 1) identifying NASA’s critical capabilities and, through
the use of external reviews, determining which capabilities must be retained
by NASA and which can be discontinued or led outside the Agency; 2) expanding
collaboration with industry, universities and other agencies and outsourcing
appropriate activities to fully leverage outside expertise; and 3) pursuing
civil service reforms for capabilities that NASA must retain, to ensure
recruitment and retention of top science, engineering and management talent
at NASA. NASA will also address the Agency backlog of facilities revitalization
and deferred maintenance by repairing necessary and affordable facilities
and by carefully phasing down the remainder. All of these tough decisions
on the relevance of programs and facilities will require realistic, responsible
decisions on priorities and financial supportability.

It is noteworthy that the President’s budget reflects
a NASA investment in science and technology that is 42% of the total Agency
budget, up from 31% in FY 1991, and targeted to reach 51% by FY 2006. Funding
for NASA science and technology is an investment in the future and an important
factor that helps fuel the U.S. economy and maintain U.S. leadership and
competitiveness in the global economy. The science priorities that support
the objectives behind the near- and long-term missions being pursued by
our 5 Enterprises are fully consistent with NASA’s Strategic Plan. Those
priorities are identified by working with the National Research Council
(NRC) and the NASA Advisory Committees, which make recommendations to NASA
in critical areas of science research and technology development. These
recommendations represent the highest priorities of the science community.
NASA continues to coordinate its science programs with other Federal agencies
through multiple mechanisms, both formal and informal.

Overview of the FY 2002 Budget

The FY 2002 budget takes actions to address cost growth
in the Space Station. To ensure that the Station program remains within
the 5-year budget plan, the President’s FY 2002 budget redirects funding
for certain elements of the program while preserving the highest priority
goals of a permanent human presence in space, world-class research in space,
and accommodation of international partner elements. The U.S. core will
be complete once the Space Station is ready to accept major international
hardware elements. The cost growth is offset in part by redirecting funding
from remaining U.S. elements, particularly high-risk elements including
the Habitation Module, Crew Return Vehicle and Propulsion Module, avoiding
more than $2 billion in costs. In addition, funding for U.S. research equipment
and associated support will be realigned with the on-orbit capabilities
of the Space Station.

The President’s FY 2002 budget takes action to ensure
that the Space Station program will be within the $25 billion statutory
cost cap when U.S. Core Complete is achieved in FY 2004. How the cap language
should apply to elements that are considered enhancements is an issue that
we must work with the Congress. The President’s budget also proposes a
total authorization for the Space Station over a 5-year period as a further
means to cap Station spending; this amount may be adjusted upward if efficiencies
and offsets are found in other Human Space Flight programs and institutions.
NASA has initiated management reforms for the ISS program, including transferring
program reporting from the Johnson Space Center to NASA Headquarters until
a management plan has been developed.

The scope of the 104 Space Shuttle missions flown to date
has demonstrated that the Shuttle is the most versatile launch vehicle
ever built. This budget includes funding for safety investments including
additional safety upgrades and infrastructure needs that will improve reliability
and ensure continued safe operations of the system. The Space Flight Operations
Contract performed by Shuttle prime contractor continues to comprise almost
one-half of the Space Shuttle budget and will increase in size as more
contracts are consolidated.

The FY2002 budget includes a significant increase in funding
for the Space Launch Initiative. The Space Launch Initiative is a focused
investment of $4.9 billion dollars between FY2001 and FY2006 for risk reduction
and technology development efforts for at least two competing architectures
with dramatically lower costs and improved reliability and safety. Through
this initiative, NASA will reduce technical and programmatic risks to acceptable
levels to enable a competition for full scale development of one or more
2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicles around the middle of
this decade.

This budget also includes funding to begin to develop
the technologies needed to realize our vision for a 21st century
aerospace vehicle. This vision is one in which aerospace vehicles can smoothly
change shape, or morph, in flight like birds to optimize performance during
complex maneuvers in complete safety, and be capable of self-repair when
damaged. These vehicles will employ intelligent systems made of smart sensors,
micro processors, and adaptive control systems to enable the vehicles to
monitor their own performance, their environment, and their human operators
in order to avoid crashes, mishaps, and incidents. They will also serve
as the means for sensing any damage or impending failure long before it
becomes a problem. The research into the technology to make this vision
a realityónanotechnology, biotechnology and information technologyówill
result in leapfrog capabilities compared to today’s state-of-the-art vehicles.

Also included in the Aerospace Technology FY 2002 budget
is funding to establish five university-based Research, Education, and
Training Institutes (RETIs). This effort will strengthen NASA’s ties to
the academic community through long-term sustained investment in areas
of innovative, new technology critical to NASA’s future and to broaden
the capabilities of the nation’s universities to meet the goals and objectives
of NASA’s future science missions and technology programs. These RETI’s
will be openly competed at regular intervals and will inched a mandatory
sunset date.

The FY 2002 budget integrates NASA’s investments in bio-nanotechnology
computing and electronics which can provide capabilities orders of magnitude
better than the best of today’s electronics. Developed as detectors and
sensors, they could enable spacecraft systems to be much smaller, with
higher performance and lower power-consumption than possible with today’s
technology. Biologically inspired materials will have multi-functional
capability and overall performance far greater than current materials.
Key capabilities of these systems will be the ability to adapt to changing
conditions and Agency mission needs and to detect damage or degradation
before it becomes serious and reconfigure or repair themselves.

This budget funds the newly restructured Mars Exploration
Program (MEP) and sets in place basic technology investments for the next
decade of robotic Mars exploration. The MEP strategy is linked to NASA’s
experience in exploring Earth, and uses Mars as a natural laboratory for
understanding life and climate on Earth-like planets. The 2001 Mars Odyssey
orbiter was launched on April 7, and two Mars Exploration Rovers are being
prepared for launch in 2003. Following that, NASA is planning for a Mars
Reconnaissance Orbiter mission in 2005, and a competitively selected Mars
Scout mission. In addition, science definition and technology development
for a next-generation, mobile surface laboratory in 2007 is underway that
will pave the way for a potential sample return mission early in the next
decade. Also funded in the Space Science budget is the Living With a Star
program, which address aspects of the Sun-Earth system that affect life
and society. Its program elements include a space-weather research network;
a theory, modeling and data analysis program; and space environment test-beds.
The FY 2002 budget includes funding to support the launch of 9 space science
missions by the end of FY 2002.

In NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise, the FY 2002 budget
enables both the present and the future of scientific discovery leading
to improved climate, weather and natural hazard prediction. In the present,
it funds the continued deployment of the Earth Observing System (EOS) and
related research to achieve the world’s first integrated, detailed look
at the interactions of land, atmosphere, oceans, ice and life. It is these
interactions that drive variability and change in the Earth system, including
regional weather, El Nino, large-scale floods, and volcanic activity. For
the future, this budget initiates the next generation of observing satellites
beyond EOS, as well as funds the advanced technology development that will
make those missions less expensive and more capable. It also funds a program
of applications research that will demonstrate the practical use of Earth
science data.

Also included in the FY 2002 budget is an increase of
$10 million to provide a significant number of scholarships in science
and engineering to enhance our student and faculty programs, including
the development of a scholarship program in disciplines critical to NASA’s
future workforce needs. NASA will be seeking legislative authority to make
these investments in our future scientists and engineers through a scholarship
for service program. We will link these scholarship students to our current
summer student and faculty programs, so that the students can work at our
field Centers, side-by-side with our scientists and engineers.

The President has challenged NASA to ensure that we fully
tap the R&D capabilities of academia and industry so our workforce
and institutions are most effectively focused and to ensure a national
capability to support NASA’s mission. We face some difficult decisions
and will take a close look at program priorities, capabilities outside
NASA and the capabilities at our NASA field installations. We will continue
to review the need for certain NASA facilities where the continuing cost
of maintaining an aging infrastructure should yield to other priorities
more closely tied to advancing technology.

Beginning with this FY 2002 budget request, and consistent
with statutory direction provided in the FY 2001 VA-HUD-Independent Agencies
Appropriations Act (P.L. 106-377), NASA is implementing a two-appropriation
budget (excluding the Inspector General account) — Human Space Flight
(HSF) and Science, Aeronautics and Technology (SAT). This is NASA’s first
step in transitioning to a full-cost budget. While full cost will ultimately
integrate institutional and programmatic funds into a single budget, that
integration is done in a step-wise manner, by providing for an Institutional
Support budget line under each Enterprise and eliminating the present Mission
Support appropriation. This initial step will begin to recognize, budget,
and track direct full time equivalent (FTE) employees associated at the
Enterprise level and then use this FTE data to distribute institutional
costs (Research and Program Management and non-programmatic Construction
of Facilities) using the relative percentages of direct FTE’s by Enterprise.
Taking this step will help managers and decision makers begin to understand
the potential magnitude of institutional funds that are associated with
each Enterprise in preparation for the day when full cost budgeting will
distribute these funds to the project level via the appropriate cost/service

NASA is an Agency about the future, and it is critical
that we, as a Nation, invest in the future of science and engineering–as
represented by the President’s FY 2002 budget request–if we are to continue
to press the boundaries of the future.

The following information provides detail, with funding
delineated under the new budget structure presented in the FY 2002 budget
, concerning plans for NASA’s Strategic Enterprises and major
program areas. Appended to this statement are several charts depicting
the funding proposals reflected in the President’s FY 2002 budget request.

NASA Enterprise Detail

Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise

International Space Station:

ISS is funded at $2.087.4 billion. This budget represents
continued support for the ISS program, enabling the high priority goals
of permanent human presence in space, world-class research in space, and
accommodation of international partner elements. In response to the recent
estimated ISS budget cost growth projections of $4 billion between FY 2002-2006,
NASA is undertaking reforms to curtail cost growth and identify savings.
Because the cost to operate and utilize existing ISS elements and to continue
the integration and launch of the 3-year inventory of hardware already
at KSC is essentially committed, NASA’s strategy is to redirect funding
from projects with significant development activity remaining. Redirecting
funding for the Propulsion Module, the Habitation Module and the Crew Return
Vehicle avoids over $2 billion in costs. Restoration of these projects
will be contingent on the quality of NASA’s future cost estimates, the
resolution of technical issues, the success of management reforms and other
cost-control actions underway, and the ability to fund enhancements within
the 5-year runout for Human Space Flight. Funding for U.S. research equipment
and associated support will be realigned in accordance with the resulting
on-orbit capabilities, but will maintain support for research considered
most promising and crucial. While providing a clear call to NASA for fiscal
restraint, this budget nonetheless maintains a commitment to launch the
hardware that NASA has already built and maintains the current assembly
schedule until at least 2004.

In addition to the redirected funds, NASA is preparing
an action plan for management reform, and several management initiatives
at NASA’s space flight Centers to reduce costs by improving our cost-estimating
ability, improving management efficiencies, refocusing civil servants,
developing a plan for competition, and seeking greater participation from
international partners.

With regard to Space Station research, we are fully committed
to deliver to orbit all of the research equipment planned for the next
2 years. It goes without saying, there are many in the research communities
who have very legitimate concerns about the impacts of the research funding
reductions and crew resource limitations necessary to address cost growth.
We are developing a post-2004 research utilization strategy that will be
reviewed by our research community.

This budget continues our commitment to ISS commercialization.
We will continue to seek commercial investment in infrastructure and ISS
operations that may reduce Government costs, and we are continuing to assess
Non-Government Organization (NGO) concepts for ISS utilization.

Space Shuttle:

The President’s FY 2002 budget includes $3.284 billion
for the Space Shuttle Program. Earlier this month, the Space Shuttle celebrated
the 20th Anniversary of the launch of STS-1. Over the past two
decades, the Space Shuttle has proven itself to be the safest and most
versatile launch vehicle ever built. During the past year, the Space Shuttle
has continued to perform the critical function of providing access to support
the assembly and resupply of the ISS. The Space Shuttle also provides a
space-based laboratory for conducting human supported Earth science missions,
and will continue to maintain the Hubble Space Telescope and fly biological
and physical research missions.

To sustain safety and support the Shuttle manifest, the
Space Shuttle program will continue to invest in the Space Shuttle system
to lessen the impacts of obsolescence and maintainability issues and to
achieve lower operating risk by making safety investments, including upgrading
the system. The Space Shuttle will need to be capable of supporting the
critical human space transportation requirements for Space Station assembly
and operations through at least this decade. NASA has determined that investing
in upgrades provides not only a safer vehicle, but also one that is more
reliable and one that is easier to maintain. NASA is continuing to assess
the Space Shuttle programs aging infrastructure to determine how these
needsóparticularly safety-related needs–can be addressed within the Agency’s
budget priorities. For FY 2001, 7 scheduled missions will support the assembly
and resupply of the ISS. In FY 2002, NASA is planning to launch 7 missions–5
ISS assembly and resupply flights, the Hubble Space Telescope’s 3A servicing
mission, and a research utilization flight (STS-107).

NASA plans to aggressively pursue Space Shuttle privatization
opportunities that improve the Shuttle’s safety and operational efficiency.
This reform will include continued implementation of planned and new privatization
efforts through the Space Shuttle prime contractor and further efforts
to safely and effectively transfer civil service positions and responsibilities
to the Space Shuttle prime contractor.

Space Access:

Recent market stagnation threatens the viability of new
commercially developed launch systems. NASA continues to work with this
industry segment to seek ways to enable an opportunity for them to compete
with the major launch companies, to ensure reliable cost effective U.S.
launch services to meet Agency requirements.

Space Operations

On-orbit checkout of the TDRS-H spacecraft was conducted
in July-September 2000, at which time the Multiple Access Return (MAR)
service exhibited out of specification problems. An investigation of the
MAR anomaly began in September 2000. The root cause of the anomaly has
been determined and changes to the TDRS-I and ñJ spacecraft flight hardware
will be implemented prior to their launch. NASA is evaluating its contract
options relative to accepting or rejecting the TDRS-H spacecraft. Additionally,
in attaining the separate goals of responsive services at the lowest possible
cost and of transitioning to commercial service providers, the Space Operations
and Maintenance Organization (SOMO) faces several challenges, namely, evolving
to a fee-for-service approach to operations, and meeting an aggressive
cost reduction target while assuring mission safety.

Advanced Programs:

In order to better align with current Agency budget priorities,
in FY 2002 the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Technology
Commercialization Initiative (HTCI) is focused largely on nearer-term goals
within the overall strategic framework that has been defined for HEDS.
The HTCI is considering commercialization in a broader context than the
more focused efforts to date involving commercialization of the ISS or
the Space Shuttle. Through HTCI, NASA intends to examine architectures
that take advantage of a potentially robust future commercial infrastructures
that could dramatically lower the cost of future space activities.



Space Science Enterprise

NASA’s Space Science Enterprise (SSE) is focused on exploring
the near and far reaches of our Universe ñ the planets, stars, galaxies
and other phenomena ñ in an attempt to answer these fundamental questions:
How did the Universe begin and evolve? How did we get here? Are we alone?

Through its various research programs and diverse missions,
the Space Science Enterprise has already made great strides to begin to
answer these questions. The scientific discoveries and insights gained
through the Space Science Enterprise programs and missions have literally
changed the way we view the Universe and our place in it. NASA’s Space
Science FY 2002 budget request is $2.786 billion.

Space Science had many important successes over the past
year, several of which were related to our closest neighboring planet,
Mars. On April 7, NASA began a return to Mars with the successful launch
of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft, which will arrive at Mars in October 2001.
Once there, the spacecraft will use its suite of scientific instruments
to map the chemical elements and minerals that make up the Martian surface,
look for signs of water, and analyze the Martian radiation environment.
The Mars Global Surveyor is continuing its in-depth imaging mission and
has revealed features suggesting the possibility of current sources of
liquid water at or near the Martian surface. Surveyor has also imaged layers
of sedimentary rock, which suggest that long ago Mars may have had numerous
lakes and shallow seas. Since most scientists consider water to be one
of the key ingredients for life, these findings are particularly compelling.
NASA is anxious to continue exploring the Red Planet, and the new Mars
Exploration Program unveiled last October will ensure that we do exactly
that. Through a series of orbiters, landers, rovers, and sample return
missions that will take us through the next decade and beyond, NASA is
committed to unraveling the secrets of Mars’ past environment and geology
and to discovering the role that water played. Once we begin understanding
some of these parameters, we will be better able to determine whether life
ever arose, or is still present, on Mars.

Further out in the solar system, NASA landed a spacecraft
on an asteroid for the first time. Though never intended to be a lander,
the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft touched down on asteroid
433 Eros in February 2001. NEAR completed a very successful prime mission
of orbiting Eros at different altitudes and sending back dramatic images
of the asteroid’s surface. With “nothing to lose,” project scientists decided
to attempt a “controlled crash” onto the surface in hopes of getting close-up
images during the descent phase. Not only did we obtain spectacular images,
but also NEAR actually continued to send signals after it landed. The spacecraft
returned readings from its magnetometer and gamma-ray spectrometer from
the surface of Eros before it was shut off at the end of February.

NASA has long supported the scientific study of the phenomena
and fundamental physical processes involved in solar-terrestrial physics
and has launched numerous spacecraft to study the dynamics of our Sun.
A suite of NASA spacecraft continues to study the Sun now, in the maximum
phase of its 11-year solar cycle. The volatility of the Sun during this
phase was at one time only of concern to solar physicists; however, with
humankind’s increasing dependence on satellite systems, energy grids, and
air travel, learning more about the Sun and its effects on the Earth has
become an important area for scientific research. Just recently Solar and
Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) scientists were able to image a solar storm
on the far side of the Sun (not facing Earth) for the first time. This
allowed them to provide a week’s advance warning about the bad weather
in space, which enabled commercial and government entities to take measures
against system damage.

After more than a decade in space, the Hubble Space Telescope
(HST) is still delivering cutting-edge science and amazing images. A HST
census found that the mass of a supermassive black hole is directly related
to the size of the galaxy’s nuclear bulge of stars. This suggests that
the evolution of galaxies and their host black holes is intimately linked.

Using the Chandra X-Ray Observatory’s superior resolution,
astronomers have also discovered a new type of black hole in the galaxy
M82. This black hole may represent the missing link between smaller stellar
black holes and the supermassive variety found at the centers of most galaxies.
Just recently, scientists captured the deepest exposure yet made by any
telescope using Chandra. This image, comparable to the famous Hubble Deep
Field, found black holes dominating the Universe at the faintest and farthest
distances. The fact that black holes were such a dominant feature of the
early Universe came, as somewhat of a surprise, since they are not nearly
as common today.

NASA’s Space Science Enterprise has made major contributions
to the scientific world over the years. By making hard decisions to cancel
lower-priority missions with significant cost growth or schedule slippage,
including the Pluto-Kuiper Express and Solar Probe missions, the President’s
FY 2002 budget request paves the way for more capable missions and increasing
scientific discoveries and revelations in the years ahead. In addition
to a robust Mars Exploration Program for the next decade, the proposed
budget also focuses on new technology development in space propulsion systems
that could support faster, more capable planetary missions such as a potential
Pluto “sprint” mission and supports critical technology investments for
future decisions on high-energy astrophysics missions.

Space Science continues to develop integrated programs
of missions that have delivered and will deliver a hearty and diverse abundance
of new scientific understanding about the universe and our place within
it to the American people.

Earth Science Enterprise

The President’s budget for FY2002 is $1.515 billion. It
reflects the net change in funding for Earth Observing Systems (EOS) as
peak funding for the first series of EOS declines and funding for formulation
of next decade missions ramps up. NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise is our
Nation’s investment in improving climate, weather and natural hazard prediction
using the vantagepoint of space. Our ability to view the Earth from space
is what enables today’s weather forecasts, and what will help enable tomorrow’s
capability to predict El Nino, decadal climate change, and even volcanic
eruptions. Earth science is cutting edge science, exploring changes taking
place on our home planet that are little understood today. And Earth science
is also science in the national interest, providing new tools for decision-making
by businesses, state & local governments, and other Federal agencies.

FY2000 was the best year yet for NASA’s Earth Science
program, as measured by our contribution to the list top science discoveries
worldwide, published by Science News. We mapped the pattern of thinning
and thickening of the Greenland ice sheet, published a 20 year record of
North and South polar sea ice extent, and observed a Connecticut-size iceberg
break off from the Antarctic ice sheet. We demonstrated the capability
for 2-day prediction of storm formation, and showed that air pollutants
inhibit rainfall. We discovered that the mysterious “Chandler wobble” of
the Earth on its axis is caused by changes in deep ocean circulation, and
created a consistent global land cover data set for use as a baseline for
measurement of future changes.

Much of this work was made possible by NASA-sponsored
scientific research and the first elements of the EOS series of satellites
now being deployed. Landsat 7, QuikSCAT, Terra, and ACRIMsat were all successfully
launched in 1999, and are delivering science data to millions of users
today. In February 2000, we flew the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission,
and are using the data to produce the most accurate digital elevation model
of the Earth’s land surface between 60°
N and 56°S. This will be of great use not
only to scientists but also to civil engineers who are working to improve
aviation safety in mountainous areas and to manage potential flood hazards.
Late in 2000, we successfully launched the New Millennium Program Earth
Observer-1 to test several new remote sensing instruments. One instrument
is demonstrating the capability to make Landsat-type measurements at one-fifth
the size and one-fourth the cost. Another instrument is demonstrating the
first hyperspectral imager flown in space, paving the way for the next
big advance in commercial remote sensing.

Over the next 3 years, we will complete the deployment
of the EOS System. Later this year, we will launch the Aqua spacecraft
to make the most accurate measurements yet of atmospheric temperature and
humidity–the kind of data that will enable scientific discoveries leading
to weather prediction to be extended from 3 to 5 days out to 7 days. ICEsat
will make the first detailed topographic maps of the world’s great ice
sheets. Other missions will extend key data records of ocean topography
and solar irradiance that are essential to seasonal and decadal climate
prediction. Smaller, complementary missions will study Earth system phenomena
never before studied globally from space, such as the Gravity Recovery
and Climate Experiment (GRACE) which will provide a precise map of the
Earth’s mass distribution and changes in the Earth’s gravity field, including
changes in large underground fresh water reserves (aquifers). The development
of the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is nearly complete, and
is already doing the job of operating EOS satellites now in orbit and processing
their data. In FY 2000, EOSDIS provided over 8 million data products in
response to 1.5 million requests. We have already begun to plan how data
and information system services should evolve to meet the needs of Earth
science and applications over the next decade.

Planning for the next decade of Earth science has been
in full swing over the past year. NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise has a
new Research Strategy for 2000-2010 that has been positively reviewed
by the National Research Council and endorsed by the NASA Advisory Council
committee advising the Office of Earth Science.

Five EOS successor missions are planned as part of the
FY 2002 budget. A Global Precipitation Mission will build on the success
of TRMM, and provide the first global observations of rainfall. This will
provide data essential to future assessments of fresh water availability,
and to answering some of the highest priority questions in the Research
Strategy. Ocean topography and ocean surface winds missions will succeed
the EOS-era Jason and SeaWinds, respectively, providing continuity of measurements
that are proving essential to forecasting and monitoring El Nino and hurricanes.
Atmospheric ozone/aerosol and solar irradiance missions will extend EOS-era
measurements of two key factors (atmospheric chemistry and incoming solar
energy) that help distinguish natural from human influences on climate

In addition, this budget provides essential funding for
future Earth exploratory missions to probe least understood Earth system
processes, which will be awarded competitively.

This budget request also adequately funds research to
use these observations to begin to answer the questions in the Research
, to demonstrate practical applications of these data to society
described in the Applications Strategy, and to develop advanced
technology to make such observations better and cheaper in the future,
as described in the Technology Strategy. It is this investment in
Earth science from space that will enable the future of climate, weather,
and natural hazard forecasting to serve national needs and maintain US
global leadership in space-based Earth observations in the decades

Biological and Physical Research Enterprise

NASA’s Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR)
Enterprise was established this past year to affirm NASA’s commitment to
the essential role biology will play in the 21st century and
establish the core of biological and physical sciences research needed
to support Agency strategic objectives. OBPR was established under the
premise that revolutionary solutions to science and technology problems
are likely to emerge from scientists, clinicians, and engineers who are
working at the frontiers of their respective disciplines and are also engaged
in dynamic interdisciplinary interactions.

Funded at $360.9 million in FY 2002, OBPR uses the space
environment as a laboratory to test the fundamental principles of physics,
chemistry and biology; conducts research to enable the safe and productive
human habitation of space; and enables commercial research in space. OBPR
includes programs in Physical Sciences Research, Fundamental Space Biology
research, and Biomedical and Human Support research. OBPR conducts research
activities in conjunction with four other major Federal agencies through
approximately 30 partner agreements. OBPR also manages 12 Commercial Space
Centers across the country.

OBPR is preparing for the transition to a new era in human
space flight. The International Space Station (ISS) will provide a growing
capability as a research platform. OBPR will work to extract the maximum
scientific and commercial return from this premier research facility while
conducting research to ensure the health and safety of space travelers
in the near term and into the future.

NASA is on track to deliver the first 10 research equipment
racks to ISS as planned. In addition, we have already selected more than
100 specific experiments planned for the first 6 ISS increments. During
Expedition 1, from October 2000 through February 2001, the crew conducted
several research activities in the areas of educational seed growth experiments,
crystal growth of biological macromolecules, motion and vibration technology
and human research. Eighteen NASA experiments are scheduled to become operational
during Expedition 2 (March through July of 2001), including important biomedical
experiments in the areas of radiation dosimetry, psychosocial factors,
sleep physiology, drug absorption, and sensorimotor coordination. Those
experiments will continue into Expedition 3 (July through October of 2001),
and additional OBPR experiments will be added to study renal stone prevention,
spatial orientation, and pulmonary function. Consistent with the current
baseline assembly sequence, the permanent Space Station crew size will
be limited to three crew due to cost growth. Crew size will be a major
limiting factor for research activities and reduced funding support for
completing state-of-the-art research facilities will have an impact on
the planned research program.

NASA is restructuring the ISS research budget to align
it with the on-orbit capabilities and fiscal resources available. This
restructuring activity is taking place over the next few months. OBPR is
prioritizing and time-phasing research plans for internal lab-based research
as well as external truss and exposed platform Fundamental Physics, Earth
and Space Sciences research. OBPR is engaging the scientific community
as part of this process. We have proposed a framework of priorities to
ensure a world-class research program, consistent with NASA’s commitment
to safety, to serve as the basis of discussion with the scientific community.

During Space Station construction, OBPR is aggressively
pursuing opportunities to maximize research within the availability of
the Space Shuttle missions, through the use of mid-deck lockers on planned
ISS assembly flights, and ISS utilization flights.

Aerospace Technology

The budget request for the Office of Aerospace Technology
Enterprise is $2,375.7 million. We are funding the highest priority aeronautical
and space technologies while maintaining an active base research program
that will enable revolutionary advances in the way we design and operate
the aerospace vehicles of the 21st Century. We have terminated
projects that have either delivered on most of their promised technology
or do not offer a leap in technology commensurate with their funding. Included
in those terminated are Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE), High Performance
Computing and Communication (HPCC), Rotorcraft and other aircraft activities
focused on near-term military applications. We are placing additional emphasis,
and dollars, on 21st Century Aerospace Vehicles, Computing,
Information & Communication Technology (CICT), Virtual Airspace Modeling
and nanotechnology. These increased investments reflect where we need to
focus our efforts to expand knowledge and to advance the state of the art
in revolutionary new aircraft and air traffic management technology.

Aerospace Technology Programs

To reflect our new emphasis on innovation, as well as
reflect the technical progress gained in recent years, we have reformulated
our Enterprise goalsóRevolutionize Aviation, Advance Space Transportation,
Pioneer Technology Innovation, and Commercialize Technology.

Goal One, Revolutionize Aviation. Without a revolution
in the aviation system, it will be impossible to accommodate the projected
tripling of air travel within two decades in a safe and environmentally
friendly manner. Revolutionizing the aviation system to meet the demands
for growth means we must provide a distributed flexible and adaptable network
of airwaysówithin the physical and environmental constraints of today’s
system. We must and will address the civil aviation system’s fundamental,
systemic issues to ensure its continued growth and development, thereby
giving backbone to the global transportation system and assuring global
economic and cultural success and vitality.

We have restructured our Base Research and Technology
investments to focus on revolutionary 21st Century Vehicle technologies.
The design and fabrication of 21st Century aerospace vehicles
will not be accomplished by the traditional methods of multiple mechanically
connected parts and systems. It will employ fully integrated embedded “smart”
materials that will endow the vehicle with unprecedented levels of aerodynamic
efficiency and control. Proposed 21st Century Aerospace Vehicles
will be able to monitor their own performance, environment, and even their
operators in order to improve safety and fuel efficiency, and minimize
airframe noise.

Goal Two, Advance Space Transportation. I am very
excited about the Agency’s vision to revolutionize the Nation’s space transportation
systems. I believe this is the most important initiative of this Enterprise
and one of the most important to our Nation. NASA’s vision for space transportation
is being pursued through a phased approach embodied within the Integrated
Space Transportation Plan and the Space Launch Initiative. We recognize
that privately owned and operated launch vehicles lofting NASA payloads
on a regular basis is the right strategy to free up the agency’s resources
for scientific pursuit on the new frontier.

Last month we reached a major milestone in the 2nd
Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle program when we selected a number of
companies to enter into negotiations to participate in the Space Launch
Initiative. Following an exhaustive series of evaluations, we concluded
that the X-33 and X-34 projects would not receive Space Launch Initiative
funds. This difficult decision was based upon the determination that the
benefits to be derived from continuing these programs did not justify the
cost. We plan to announce the results of the ongoing Space Launch initiative
negotiations in May.

Goal Three, Pioneer Technology Innovation. We aim
to revolutionize the developmental processes, tools, and capabilities of
the aerospace industry. To create the aerospace transportation systems
of the future, we need to develop a new approach to engineering that puts
safety, reliability and mission assurance first. Collaborative tools and
human-like intuitive environments are critical to allowing us to “virtually”
build and test vehicles and systems before we spend money on expensive
hardware. System characteristics such as intelligence, rapid self-repair,
and adaptability will come about through innovation and integration of
leading-edge technologies, such as biotechnology, nanotechnology, and intelligent
systems. The unique goal to Pioneer Technology Innovation focuses on both
the specific technology innovations and the processes, which drive them.

To strengthen our ties with the academic community we
are implementing five University-based Research, Education and Training
Institutes (RETIs). The role of the RETIs will be to research and utilize
innovative, cutting-edge opportunities for science and technology that
can have a revolutionary impact on NASA’s future missions. These RETI’s
will be openly competed at regular intervals and will include a mandatory
sunset date.

We have combined existing programs with new activities
to create the Computing, Information & Communications Technology (CICT)
research program to concentrate our core expertise in critical technologies

Goal Four, Commercialize Technology.

Since its inception in 1958, NASA has been charged with
ensuring that the technology it develops is transferred to the U.S. industrial
community, thereby improving the Nation’s competitive position in the world
market. The FY 2002 budget request of $146.9M continues this important
aspect of our mission. The Agency’s commercialization effort encompasses
all technologies created at NASA centers by civil servants, as well as
innovations produced by NASA contractors. About 75% of the amount requested
for NASA’s Commercial Technology Program effort is for NASA’s Small Business
Innovation Research (SBIR) Program. The NASA SBIR program has clearly contributed
to the U.S. economy, fostering the establishment and growth of over 1,100
small, high technology businesses.

In addition to NASA’s Commercial Technology Program, we
are also working to transfer commercial technology across the entire aerospace
program. For example, the need for data dissemination within a high-integrity
wireless broadband network has been identified as one of the major technical
barriers to providing an order of magnitude increase in aviation system
capacity and safety. NASA’s work in wireless broadband networking illustrates
a huge commercial success. We have demonstrated real-time data link technology
to move and distribute unique and distinct flight data to multiple sites
in real-time while addressing multi-level priorities in a secure, high
integrity data sharing environment serving safety and capacity needs of
the National Airspace System. This broadband technology demonstrated a
phased array antenna technology that achieves data rates 100x greater than
what is operational in today’s National Airspace System, greatly increasing
the capacity of the NAS, reducing aviation system delays and saving billions
of dollars in air travel operations cost. In April 2000, Boeing unveiled
a high-speed global communications service offering live in-flight Internet,
e-mail, and TV to be available next year. While anticipated revenues have
not been announced, analysts project the addressable market to be about
$70 billion over the next 10 years.

Other Key Initiatives

Institutional Support

NASA has conducted a review of its facilities infrastructure,
finding that the deteriorating plant condition warrants an increased revitalization
rate to avoid safety hazards to personnel, facilities, equipment and mission.
Some facilities have deteriorated to the point that they need to be replaced.
The President’s FY 2002 budget request includes facilities funding to address
some of these needs, but the backlog of revitalization requirements continues
to grow and will be addressed as part of NASA’s Critical Capabilities Review.

NASA plans to address the considerable Agency backlog
of facilities revitalization and deferred maintenance, by repairing those
facilities necessary to take us into the future and that are affordable
to keep, and by carefully phasing down the remainder. This requires tough
decisions on the relevance of each facility as well as realistic, responsible
determinations on the financial supportability of them. These decisions
will be made as part of the Strategic Resources Planning activity that
NASA will undertake as part of its Critical Capabilities Review over the
next several months. This effort will fully integrate facilities planning
with program planning, consistent with NASA’s Strategic Plan and Center
implementation plans. In fact, this Strategic Resources Planning effort
will become an integral and ongoing part of NASA’s facilities planning
and management processes.

Performance Plans

NASA is fully committed to the Government Performance
Results Act (GPRA). Each year, we believe we make further progress in portraying
our goals and commitments towards performance in terms that are relevant
to the American people. We appreciate the heightened level of accountability
GPRA affords. The NASA Performance Plan has been significantly improved
for FY2002 in several key areas:

  • Public Benefit Statements will be included to more effectively
    communicate the relevance of targeted performance
  • Each Enterprise/Crosscut Process will provide a description
    of the means that will be used to verify and validate measured performance.
  • A Multi-year Performance Chart (FY 99-02) will be included
    for each Enterprise/crosscut process to demonstrate cumulative progress
    towards the achievement of strategic goals and objectives
  • Comments from the NASA Advisory Council regarding the development
    of metrics will be incorporated in the Plan.

NASA is in the process of modifying how we measure NASA R&D
so as to better recognize the achievements of our long-term research missions
to benefit the American public. Measuring multi-year, incremental efforts
on an annual basis; quantifying and predicting the timing of research results;
and adjusting metrics to reflect gains in knowledge and experience are
new approaches that we believe would be useful in assessing NASA’s program
performance and measuring R&D efforts in general under GPRA.


Mr. Chairman, I am proud of the budget I am presenting
to the Committee. It is essential that the Congress fully fund this budget.
It will enable NASA to continue to fly the Shuttle safely, continue development
of the Space Launch Initiative that will revolutionize our launch capability,
continue construction of the ISS, and accomplish cutting-edge science research
and technology. While the difficulties of cost growth on the ISS program
present challenges, we are committed to completing the ISS with our International
partners so that we will have a world-class research laboratory in space
that will provide unprecedented opportunity for a host of science discoveries
not yet imagined.

I look forward to working with the Committee to make this
budget a reality.