Three comets exhibiting quite uncomet-like behavior have been found orbiting the Sun in a manner more expected of rocky asteroids. Dubbed “main-belt comets” by researchers, the objects suggests that comets and asteroids share more in common than previously thought, and that water found on Earth may also have taken root in the asteroid belt.
“It’s just the tip of the iceberg,” said University of Hawaii astronomer David Jewitt in a telephone interview. “We said in our study there may be hundreds of them out there, but there could be thousands.”
Asteroids tend to be made of rock and metal. Comets, which typically spend most of their existence beyond Neptune and visit the inner solar system infrequently if ever, hold more water ice and other icy chemicals — and are often called icy dirtballs.
Jewitt and graduate student Henry Hsieh, who led the study, used the Gemini North Telescope atop Hawaii’s Mauna Kea to find that an object dubbed Asteroid 118401 was not really an asteroid at all.
Their observations found the “asteroid” was ejecting dust like a comet. The Nov. 26 discovery came one month after a similar object was discovered by the Spacewatch project at the University of Arizona’s Lunar and Planetary Laboratory in Tucson . Astronomers have known of a third comet-like object, 133P/Elst-Pizarro, for about 10 years; it no longer seems an isolated oddball.
“The main-belt comets are unique in that they have tight, circular, asteroid-like orbits, and not the elongated, often-tilted orbits characteristic of all other comets,” Hsieh said in a statement. “At the same time, their cometary appearance makes them unlike all other previously observed asteroids.”
Their research was detailed March 23 in the online version of the journal Science.
Watering a planet
Astronomers believe that the Earth formed under hot and dry conditions, relying on ice from comets to build up its stores of water and become habitable. But studies of traditional comet ice have found that the water composition is quite different than that of Earth’s oceans, Jewitt said.
Main-belt comet ice appears to have formed while the solar system was still a vast protoplanetary nebula of raw material under much warmer temperatures compared to the conditions where traditional comets have formed: out in the Kuiper Belt on the frigid fringe of our planetary neighborhood, Jewitt said.
Because of their proximity, main-belt comets could have served as a major source for Earth’s water, the researchers said.
More study is needed to determine if the main-belt comet ice is chemically similar to that found on Earth. To do that, Jewitt said , a full-sky survey is required to scan the myriad asteroids for other comet-like objects.
Since main-belt comets are somewhat predictable in their orbits and relatively close to Earth, they might even prove attractive targets for future missions.
“These guys are close astronomically, so yes, we could probably do something with a spacecraft,” Jewitt said.