PASADENA, Calif. — On the morning of the public memorial service for Neil Armstrong, the first person to walk on the Moon, NASA officials called for a new era of cooperation between human and robotic space explorers in an era of tighter budgets.
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Civil Policy & Politics
NEW YORK — Touching down on an alien surface typically requires a delicate landing approach that evokes the graceful spacecraft ballet of “2001: A Space Odyssey,” or at least some cushioning airbags. But several proposed future missions could take a more crude approach by firing swarms of cheap, bullet-shaped penetrator probes at planets.